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TI Calculator Wireless Chat.
Our project is a wireless communication link which interfaces to the serial ports on the TI and TI calculators. The system interfaces to each calculator through their 2. This device allows for convenient communication between localized parties by utilizing readily available and distributed wideless. Our project models the TI calculator low level communication protocol over a wireless communication link as shown in Figure 1.
He had an idea to make a wireless transmitter so he could communicate with his peers without the wireless chat serial cable link. Not possessing the skills wieeless de such a device, he decided to become an electrical engineer. After 4 years his ignorance had disappeared but his nerdyness remained. It was beautiful older ladies seeking casual encounter jonesboro to make his dream a reality.
A small amount of mathematical formulas apply to this project, with the majority of the math present wirelesd around timing and logic. The serial link between calculators uses a handshake method between two al lines which eliminates the need for a system clock to regulate data communication. This handshake protocol must execute at a minimum rate of about baud or else communication will fail due to the transmitting calculator timing out while waiting for a response from the receiving calculator.
The logical structure of our project came from modeling the TI serial link low level protocol. The two lines go low and high according to a handshake shown in Wirreless 2 below. Next, the transmitting calculator pulls the red wire wireless chat high, and waits for the receiving calculator to pull the white wire back high to return to the neutral state of both wires being high as shown in the middle of the figure 8 shaped diagram. The process continues for two bytes worth of data 16 handshakes.
Then, the receiving calculator sends back a checksum of the last two bytes. The beauty of this project is that the check sum is sent using the same handshaking procedure, so since we are modeling the lowest physical level of new philadelphia escorte protocol, our system does not need to for high level routines such as checksums, header packets, etc. The microcontroller that interfaces to the calculator simulates the handshaking protocol with the calculator it is connected to.
A calculator behaves no differently than if the other end of its communication link cable was attached to another calculator, and not a microcontroller. The microcontroller stores in memory the current state of the red or white wires high or lowthen transmits this state over the wireless link to another listening microcontroller. This microcontroller papineau il milf personals replicates the red and white wire states on the link cable attached to wireless chat calculator.
By replicating data transmission on the physical level only, we allow our device to work with any calculator software which operates over a physical link. And, since a char 8 bits is the smallest portion of data that we can send over the radios we chose to use, we are sending 32 bits of data wirelessly between the two microcontrollers in Figure 1 for each bit of actual information.
Although this may seem super inefficient, the advantages of this method greatly outweigh the 32x slower speed obtained.
The Atmel microcontrollers communicate over the wireless radio link at a rate of baud which is orders of magnitude cchat than the calculators do over a traditional serial link. Plus, it is important to realize that although we send much more data over the wireless link, this data destiny escort not sent to each calculator.
So all the extra information generated to simulate the transmission of a bit is done by the microcontrollers and sent over the radios, and is never processed by the actual calculators. The radios could be easily configured upon power up by the microcontroller, and self-perform packetization, transmission, and error checking of data. This greatly increased the simplicity of our project.
The radios wireless an unobstructed communication distance of about 1 mile.
To demonstrate our capabilities, we utilized ly developed chat software that was deed to communicate over the serial link of two wired calculators. We were able to successfully run this software on our wireless link without ANY modifications to the software or calculators. Wireless chat handshake protocol we modeled was developed by Texas Instruments, and the radio transceivers were developed by Radiotronix.
Two tricky parts of our code were difficult to develop. First, we needed to write code black ladies seeking get fucked could wireless chat receive and transmit data. The software for each microcontroller both receiving and transmitting is identical. Thus, the software needs to be able to know when to listen and when to speak to the radios.
We did this by having the microcontroller simultaneously listen for a change in wire state initialized by the calculator, as well as if a new packet containing an updated wire states had been received through the UART via the radios. The receiving calculator then senses this change in wire status and then changes the wire status itself to move to the next part of the handshake in figure 2.
The microcontroller then notices this change and reports it to the microcontroller via the wireless link and the process repeats every time a calculators changes the status of the al lines. The second tricky part of our code was writing to the data registers of the radios. In their normal setting, the radios are not ideal.
They transmit and receive on the same default frequencies as everyone else using the radios, creating interference. The radios transmit speed is also at too low a rate by default. We needed to increase their baud rate in order for the microcontrollers to be able to communicate fast enough before the calculator handshake protocol timed out. We also configured the radio buffer size and speed to meet our needs.
In addition, we wrote to some other radio registers in order to bump up the power output of the antenna for maximum transmission distance. During transmission, the calculators transmit data via a handshake discussed in the sections. This means that for every bit sent, the transmitting calculator waits for a response from the receiving calculator and vice versa.
If for some reason a response is never obtained, the project would be caught in an infinite loop waiting for a response from the opposing calculator.
This must be avoided. If for some reason a calculator transmission fails i. Every time in the code where a calculator is waiting for a response from its counterpart, a millisecond timer counts down from three seconds. If the counter reaches zero, the transmission is aborted and the watchdog becomes active. When wirleess, the watchdog aborts the transmission, resets the radios, als to the calculators that the transmission failed, and then waits for a few seconds to allow the calculators to abort transmission themselves.
Then, once the calculators hardsports escort shepparton aborted, the radios and ports of the microcontroller are reset in preparation for another transmission attempt. The watchdog timer is needed if transmission fails wierless to distance, power failure, or cable disconnection. The wireless link is slower than the wired serial link as discussed earlier.
The net information transmission rate from one calculator to another is approximately baud. This net rate includes checksums and all other protocol needs, but purely describes the information transfer rate. The wireless transmitter device the microcontroller and radio takes 6 seconds to pecos nm housewives personals after being turned on.
This load time s for writing to the registers, setting up a link to the other microcontroller, and establishing a steady wire state with the adjacent calculator. After this initial load time, no other overhead time is required except for a radio reset wireless chat may occur if a transmission failed for some reason the other calculator lost power, went out of range, etc.
If such a failed transmission occurs, the radios reset and the microcontroller attempts to re-establish a stable link. This takes about 10 seconds. As discussed earlier, the data communication protocol of a Texas Instrument calculator is a clock-less handshake over two lines. After each two bytes are sent, the receiving calculator responds with a checksum. Since our project is fooling the calculators into thinking there is a regular serial cable between them, our project is as accurate genuine male seeking helena ltr the TI data transfer is.
If there is ever wireless chat failed transmission, a breaking of the handshake, or an incorrect checksum, the calculators automatically try to resend the last two byte packet. The only known reason for this is when the range of transmission nears the maximum distance and the radios begin to fail to communicate with each other.
The highest voltage created on our project is 9 volts from the battery in the portable version of our device. The le of the battery are covered and are not exposed.
All electronic components are covered to reduce burning hazards if a short occurred. In addition, our gay master slave chat contains no choking hazards for little. Our project uses radios cat are also being used in other projects. We have communicated with them both intentionally and unintentionally with the radios and have come to an agreement to use different channels for each of our projects.
The radios have slightly different central carrier frequency options which can be chosen by writing to their local registers, which we do every time the project is turned on or reset. The project is very easy to use by anyone. There is only one button: the ON switch. The project then automatically wireless chat as a serial link between the calculators.
Using the project requires no additional knowledge than is required to link two TI calculators with a conventional, Texas Instruments provided serial link.
Plug and Play Baby! Our radios work just as we had hoped. Woreless, the wireless link is slower than a direct wire link. This is due to the radios being the bottleneck and transferring more data than is needed char instead of single bit. However, this added time is minor. If we were to do this again, we may be able to figure wireleds a way to send a single bit of data over the radios, or possibly spend a lot of extra time recognizing a higher level of wireless chat TI protocol in order to send information by woreless byte instead of the bit.
Either method would result in higher moncton escort transmission rate. Other than that, our project met all success criteria and specifications laid out in our initial project proposal! We used the RF Module Wi. This transceiver broadcasts at frequencies near Mhz.
We also follow the TI Low Level Protocol standard for communicating over a physical link between each microcontroller and calculator. Downloaded from TIcalc. Our de and implementation is purely our own.
Our calculator to radio interfacing algorithms could potentially be of interest to others. Our cht complies with all parts of the IEEE code of ethics. Our project does not met chat any waste other than used 9 volt batteries. A low power version is configurable for short ranged transmission to avoid wasting energy and RF noise.
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